BitArray¶
- class BitArray(__auto: BitsType | int | None, length: int | None = None, offset: int | None = None, **kwargs)¶
The
Bits
class is the base class forBitArray
and so (with the exception of__hash__
) all of its methods are also available forBitArray
objects. The initialiser is also the same as forBits
and so won’t be repeated here.A
BitArray
is a mutableBits
, and so the one thing all of the methods listed here have in common is that they can modify the contents of the bitstring.
Methods¶
- BitArray.append(bs: BitsType) None ¶
Join a
BitArray
to the end of the currentBitArray
.>>> s = BitArray('0xbad') >>> s.append('0xf00d') >>> s BitArray('0xbadf00d')
- BitArray.byteswap(fmt: str | int | Iterable[int] | None = None, start: int | None = None, end: int | None = None, repeat: bool = True) int ¶
Change the endianness of the
BitArray
in-place according to fmt. Return the number of swaps done.The fmt can be an integer, an iterable of integers or a compact format string similar to those used in
pack
(described in Compact format strings). It defaults to 0, which means reverse as many bytes as possible. The fmt gives a pattern of byte sizes to use to swap the endianness of theBitArray
. Note that if you use a compact format string then the endianness identifier (<
,>
or=
) is not needed, and if present it will be ignored.start and end optionally give a slice to apply the transformation to (it defaults to the whole
BitArray
). If repeat isTrue
then the byte swapping pattern given by the fmt is repeated in its entirety as many times as possible.>>> s = BitArray('0x00112233445566') >>> s.byteswap(2) 3 >>> s BitArray('0x11003322554466') >>> s.byteswap('h') 3 >>> s BitArray('0x00112233445566') >>> s.byteswap([2, 5]) 1 >>> s BitArray('0x11006655443322')
It can also be used to swap the endianness of the whole
BitArray
.>>> s = BitArray('uintle32=1234') >>> s.byteswap() >>> print(s.uintbe) 1234
- BitArray.clear() None ¶
Removes all bits from the bitstring.
s.clear()
is equivalent todel s[:]
and simply makes the bitstring empty.
- BitArray.insert(bs: BitsType, pos: int) None ¶
Inserts bs at pos.
When used with the
BitStream
class the pos is optional, and if not present the current bit position will be used. After insertion the propertypos
will be immediately after the inserted bitstring.>>> s = BitStream('0xccee') >>> s.insert('0xd', 8) >>> s BitStream('0xccdee') >>> s.insert('0x00') >>> s BitStream('0xccd00ee')
- BitArray.invert(pos: int | Iterable[int] | None = None) None ¶
Inverts one or many bits from
1
to0
or vice versa.pos can be either a single bit position or an iterable of bit positions. Negative numbers are treated in the same way as slice indices and it will raise
IndexError
ifpos < -len(s)
orpos > len(s)
. The default is to invert the entireBitArray
.>>> s = BitArray('0b111001') >>> s.invert(0) >>> s.bin '011001' >>> s.invert([-2, -1]) >>> s.bin '011010' >>> s.invert() >>> s.bin '100101'
- BitArray.overwrite(bs: BitsType, pos: int) None ¶
Replaces the contents of the current
BitArray
with bs at pos.When used with the
BitStream
class the pos is optional, and if not present the current bit position will be used. After insertion the propertypos
will be immediately after the overwritten bitstring.>>> s = BitArray(length=10) >>> s.overwrite('0b111', 3) >>> s BitArray('0b0001110000') >>> s.pos 6
- BitArray.prepend(bs: BitsType) None ¶
Inserts bs at the beginning of the current
BitArray
.>>> s = BitArray('0b0') >>> s.prepend('0xf') >>> s BitArray('0b11110')
- BitArray.replace(old: BitsType, new: BitsType, start: int | None = None, end: int | None = None, count: int | None = None, bytealigned: bool | None = None) int ¶
Finds occurrences of old and replaces them with new. Returns the number of replacements made.
If bytealigned is
True
then replacements will only be made on byte boundaries. start and end give the search range and default to0
andlen
respectively. If count is specified then no more than this many replacements will be made.>>> s = BitArray('0b0011001') >>> s.replace('0b1', '0xf') 3 >>> print(s.bin) 0011111111001111 >>> s.replace('0b1', '', count=6) 6 >>> print(s.bin) 0011001111
- BitArray.reverse(start: int | None = None, end: int | None = None) None ¶
Reverses bits in the
BitArray
in-place.start and end give the range of bits to reverse and default to
0
andlen
respectively.>>> a = BitArray('0b000001101') >>> a.reverse() >>> a.bin '101100000' >>> a.reverse(0, 4) >>> a.bin '110100000'
- BitArray.rol(bits: int, start: int | None = None, end: int | None = None) None ¶
Rotates the contents of the
BitArray
in-place by bits bits to the left.start and end define the slice to use and default to
0
andlen
respectively.Raises
ValueError
ifbits < 0
.>>> s = BitArray('0b01000001') >>> s.rol(2) >>> s.bin '00000101'
- BitArray.ror(bits: int, start: int | None = None, end: int | None = None) None ¶
Rotates the contents of the
BitArray
in-place by bits bits to the right.start and end define the slice to use and default to
0
andlen
respectively.Raises
ValueError
ifbits < 0
.
- BitArray.set(value: bool, pos: int | Iterable[int] | None = None) None ¶
Sets one or many bits to either
1
(if value isTrue
) or0
(if value isn’tTrue
). pos can be either a single bit position or an iterable of bit positions. Negative numbers are treated in the same way as slice indices and it will raiseIndexError
ifpos < -len(s)
orpos > len(s)
. The default is to set every bit in theBitArray
.Using
s.set(True, x)
can be more efficient than other equivalent methods such ass[x] = 1
,s[x] = "0b1"
ors.overwrite('0b1', x)
, especially if many bits are being set. In particular using arange
object as an iterable is treated as a special case and is done efficiently.>>> s = BitArray('0x0000') >>> s.set(True, -1) >>> print(s) 0x0001 >>> s.set(1, (0, 4, 5, 7, 9)) >>> s.bin '1000110101000001' >>> s.set(0) >>> s.bin '0000000000000000' >>> s.set(1, range(0, len(s), 2)) >>> s.bin '1010101010101010'
Properties¶
Note that the bin
, oct
, hex
, int
, uint
and float
properties can all be shortened to their initial letter.
Properties can also have a length in bits appended to them to make properties such as u8
or floatle64
(with the exception of the bytes
property which uses a unit of bytes instead of bits, so bytes4
is 32 bits long). These properties with lengths can be used to quickly create a new bitstring.
>>> a = BitArray()
>>> a.f32 = 17.6
>>> a.h
'418ccccd'
>>> a.i7 = -1
>>> a.b
'1111111'
- BitArray.bin: str
- BitArray.b: str
Writable version of
Bits.bin
.
- BitArray.bfloat: float
- BitArray.bfloatbe: float
- BitArray.bfloatle: float
- BitArray.bfloatne: float
Writable versions of
Bits.bfloat
/Bits.bfloatbe
/Bits.bfloatle
/Bits.bfloatne
.
- BitArray.bool: bool
Writable version of
Bits.bool
.
- BitArray.bytes: bytes
Writable version of
Bits.bytes
.
- BitArray.hex: str
- BitArray.h: str
Writable version of
Bits.hex
.
- BitArray.int: int
- BitArray.i: int
Writable version of
Bits.int
. The properties can have a bit length appended to it such asi32
orint5
to specify the new length of the bitstring. Using a length too small to contain the value given will raise aCreationError
.When used as a setter without a new length the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.>>> s = BitArray('0xf3') >>> s.int -13 >>> s.int = 1232 ValueError: int 1232 is too large for a BitArray of length 8.
- BitArray.intbe: int
Writable version of
Bits.intbe
.When used as a setter the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.
- BitArray.intle: int
Writable version of
Bits.intle
.When used as a setter the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.
- BitArray.intne: int
Writable version of
Bits.intne
.When used as a setter the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.
- BitArray.float: float
- BitArray.floatbe: float
- BitArray.f: float
Writable version of
Bits.float
. The standardfloat
, the big-endianfloatbe
and the shortenedf
are all equivalent.The properties can have a bit length appended to them such as
f16
orfloatle64
to specify the new length of the bitstring. Using a length that doesn’t support any floating point types will raise aCreationError
.
- BitArray.floatle: float
Writable version of
Bits.floatle
.
- BitArray.floatne: float
Writable version of
Bits.floatne
.
- BitArray.float8_143: float
Writable version of
Bits.float8_143
.
- BitArray.float8_152: float
Writable version of
Bits.float8_152
.
- BitArray.oct: str
- BitArray.o: str
Writable version of
Bits.oct
.
- BitArray.se: int
Writable version of
Bits.se
.
- BitArray.ue: int
Writable version of
Bits.uie
.
- BitArray.sie: int
Writable version of
Bits.sie
.
- BitArray.uie: int
Writable version of
Bits.ue
.
- BitArray.uint: int
- BitArray.u: int
Writable version of
Bits.uint
.When used as a setter the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.
- BitArray.uintbe: int
Writable version of
Bits.uintbe
.When used as a setter the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.
- BitArray.uintle: int
Writable version of
Bits.uintle
.When used as a setter the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.
- BitArray.uintne: int
Writable version of
Bits.uintne
.When used as a setter the value must fit into the current length of the
BitArray
, else aValueError
will be raised.
Special Methods¶
- BitArray.__delitem__(key)¶
del s[start:end:step]
Deletes the slice specified.
- BitArray.__iadd__(bs)¶
s1 += s2
Appends bs to the current bitstring.
Note that for
BitArray
objects this will be an in-place change, whereas forBits
objects using+=
will not call this method - instead a new object will be created (it is equivalent to a copy and an__add__
).>>> s = BitArray(ue=423) >>> s += BitArray(ue=12) >>> s.read('ue') 423 >>> s.read('ue') 12
- BitArray.__iand__(bs)¶
s &= bs
In-place bit-wise AND between two bitstrings. If the two bitstrings are not the same length then a
ValueError
is raised.
- BitArray.__ilshift__(n)¶
s <<= n
Shifts the bits in-place n bits to the left. The n right-most bits will become zeros and bits shifted off the left will be lost.
- BitArray.__imul__(n)¶
s *= n
In-place concatenation of n copies of the current bitstring.
>>> s = BitArray('0xbad') >>> s *= 3 >>> s.hex 'badbadbad'
- BitArray.__ior__(bs)¶
s |= bs
In-place bit-wise OR between two bitstrings. If the two bitstrings are not the same length then a
ValueError
is raised.
- BitArray.__irshift__(n)¶
s >>= n
Shifts the bits in-place n bits to the right. The n left-most bits will become zeros and bits shifted off the right will be lost.
- BitArray.__ixor__(bs)¶
s ^= bs
In-place bit-wise XOR between two bitstrings. If the two bitstrings are not the same length then a
ValueError
is raised.
- BitArray.__setitem__(key, value)¶
s1[start:end:step] = s2
Replaces the slice specified with a new value.
>>> s = BitArray('0x00000000') >>> s[::8] = '0xf' >>> print(s) 0x80808080 >>> s[-12:] = '0xf' >>> print(s) 0x80808f